Pregnancy diet plan first,second and third trimester
During pregnancy, a woman undergoes numerous hormonal changes that, together with different nutritional needs, make food very important during this stage of life.
Each phase of pregnancy (and even prior to pregnancy ) requires specific nutritional needs, both energy and micro nutrients, for both the mother and the future baby. It is a great time to put special emphasis on food.
Weight control during pregnancy is also very important, where an increase in the correct weight should be between 10 and 12 kg.
The weight of the mother is an important factor to consider before conceiving. If you are overweight, it is best to make a diet to lose weight before becoming pregnant.It is advisable to perform a gynecological review and explain to the doctor the intentions we have.
In terms of diet, the ideal is to have a varied and balanced diet. The only thing to take into account previously is folic acid or vitamin B 9 . With the current society’s diet, it is common to make a deficit of this vitamin, for this reason it is always advisable to take it as a food supplement months before becoming pregnant. The daily needs for folic acid are 200 μg and during pregnancy they increase to a total of 400 μg per day. A deficiency of vitamin B 9 in the first weeks of pregnancy can cause malformations in the fetus, such as spina bifida.
Food during the first trimester of pregnancy
The moment a woman becomes pregnant one of the important changes is the slowing down of digestion. The objective of this is that the food stays longer in the intestine and, consequently, the absorption of nutrients is greater.
The weight gain during the first three months should be between 0.5 kg. and 1.5 kg. of weight. This weight gain is very small since the fetus only reaches about 16 cm in size.
Nutrients to consider during the first stage of pregnancy:
- Proteins, fats and carbohydrates: Its presence is very important, although the recommended amounts are not different from those of a balanced diet. This means that there must be a source of protein in each meal (meat, fish, legumes, cheese, tofu, seitan or eggs), that complex carbohydrates (pasta, bread, rice, potato) must be present daily and that there is to watch with fats (consume preferably olive oil, nuts and blue fish).
- Minerals: The diet must meet the requirements of iron, iodine and calcium, although the amounts of these and other minerals should not be greater until the 4th month of pregnancy.
- Vitamins: From the beginning of pregnancy it is important to increase the consumption of vitamin C, A, D, E and vitamins of group B. You can cover this contribution with the consumption of raw fruits and vegetables, whole grains, raw olive oil and dairy products. Many times it is recommended to take some type of natural supplement to ensure the necessary vitamin intake.
- Fiber: The daily intake of fiber is necessary to have a healthy bowel and avoid constipation. The fiber is provided by fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes.
Diet during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy
From the fourth month of pregnancy begins to increase the energy and caloric requirement of the future mother. The recommended weight to gain during the second trimester of pregnancy is 3.5 to 4 kg, and during the last trimester of pregnancy it is 5 to 5.5 kg of weight.
Recommendations that must be taken into account:
- Increase the amount of foods that provide complex carbohydrates, for example, eating more bread.
- Increase the amount of daily protein, for example, by eating larger pieces of meat or fish.
- Reduce saturated fats and increase healthy fats by consuming olive oil, nuts and blue fish or drinking a glass of milk.
- Increase calcium intake: From the 4th month of pregnancy and until the baby is born, the amount of calcium that is consumed must be greater. The best way to do this is by taking more milk products or milk substitutes enriched in calcium (soy, rice, oatmeal, etc.).
- Increase iron in the diet: It is very common for anemia to appear in late stages of pregnancy caused by the increase in the size of the fetus. For this reason the consumption of iron is very important. The main foods that contain it are red meats, mussels, eggs, fish and legumes. Although foods rich in iron are consumed, it is usually not enough to fight anemia and it is best to take food supplements. To combat iron deficiency anemia, it is also necessary to ingest a sufficient amount of vitamin B 12(present in meat, fish, eggs and dairy) and folic acid (present in asparagus, spinach, peas, cabbage, nuts, eggs and meat). Taking daily foods rich in vitamin C will also help a better assimilation of the iron in the diet.
- Increase iodine intake: It is an important mineral throughout pregnancy. It is found in foods that come from the sea, fish, shellfish and seaweed. It is recommended to eat fish 4 times a week.
Combat the main discomforts of pregnancy
Dizziness : They are frequent throughout pregnancy, especially in the mornings. They get worse when there are voltage drops or blood sugar levels. What to do?
- Eat something in bed, before standing up (for example, some rusks).
- Eat little but often, about 6 or 7 times a day.
- Avoid drinks that contain caffeine such as tea, coffee and cola drinks.
- Eat foods that provide carbohydrates in all meals. It can be in the form of bread, pasta, rice, potatoes, legumes, cereals or fruit.
Nausea and vomiting : To combat nausea and vomiting, the same recommendations as for dizziness should be followed. If they still persist:
- Take infusions of mint, cumin or pineapple juice.
- Take first course in the meal and in the dinner boiled potato, pasta or rice and with a little olive oil.
- Choose vegetables that are easy to digest such as zucchini, squash, carrots and green beans.
- Take the boiled or baked fruit.
- Avoid citrus fruits like orange juice.
- Take dairy products in the form of yogurt or cheese, avoiding drinking milk.
- Avoid the most fatty meats and sausages.
- Do not eat buns, pastry products, cookies, etc.
- Avoid raw foods and choose cooking that facilitates digestion: boiled, steam, papillote, microwave.
Acidity or reflux : Usually these discomforts appear in the last months of pregnancy, when the size of the fetus is greater and begins to compress the stomach. Tips to improve:
- Avoid the fruit fasting and as a dessert.
- Avoid acidic and spicy foods: vinegar, lemon, paprika, etc.
- Avoid whole products or that contain a lot of fiber.
- Avoid drinks with gas and caffeine.
- Avoid cooking on the grill and frying.
- Moderate the amount of olive oil used for cooking and dressing.
- Avoid being more than 3 hours without eating food. To divide the meals very much and not to consume large quantities.
Constipation : It is very common from the second trimester of pregnancy. It is not advisable to use laxatives in pregnant women but if you can administer glycerin suppositories and fiber supplements. Dietary recommendations:
- Drink water and infusions or broths throughout the day. Reach 2 liters in total.
- Walk and do physical exercise.
- Eat plant foods at all meals.
- Take whole foods, such as bread, every day.
- Add flax seeds to salads, purées or yogurt.
- Dress the dishes with raw olive oil.
- Take yoghurts with bifido-bacteria.
Muscle cramps : You can suffer muscle cramps from the second month of pregnancy. The diet to help fight them must contain:
- Foods rich in B vitamins, such as cereals, legumes, meat, fish, eggs or dairy.
- Foods rich in magnesium, such as nuts, legumes, dried fruits, bananas or green leafy vegetables (spinach, Swiss chard).
Insomnia : It usually happens towards the end of pregnancy. Recommendations:
- Dine early and light. At least 2 hours before bedtime avoiding fried and fried.
- Consume foods that provide tryptophan: eggs, chicken, ham or blue fish and drink a glass of warm milk before bedtime.
- Eliminate coffee, chocolate, tea, cola drinks, mate, guarana and ginseng from the diet.
Consumption of fish in the diet during pregnancy
Fish, in addition to being rich in proteins, provides fats very relevant to the development of the fetus such as omega 6 and omega 3 oils. But on the other hand, due to the pollution of the oceans, these fish accumulate mercury levels that vary in a remarkable way according to the species.
Larger fish that take longer to grow and eat smaller fish are those that accumulate a higher concentration of mercury. On the other hand, fish raised in cleaner waters (river fish), smaller ones or those raised in fish farms, are those that have less mercury and are perfect to consume during pregnancy.
In women who are of reproductive age and, especially, those who are pregnant or are breastfeeding , the recommendations are the consumption of 2-3 servings of fish (or seafood) weekly (about the size of the palm of one hand), of the following fish species: anchovy, sardine, croaker, mackerel, sea bass, pomfret, salmon, squid, clam, shrimp, ray, pejerrey, haddock, hake, herring, tilapia, mullet or snapper, oyster, pike, scallop , lacha, sole, crayfish, perch, cod, crab, flounder or flounder, gado or haddock, trout, light canned tuna (includes bonito), in general white fish and Pacific starling.
It is also recommended the consumption of a portion of fish each week of the following species (larger and with greater presence of omega 6): lutjánido or snapper, redfish or rockfish, Spanish mackerel, monkfish, halibut or halibut, dorado / dolphin fish, black cod, striped perch (sea), tilefish or lofolátilo, tuna or albacore / canned white and fresh / frozen, chopa, carp, grouper, real corvinata / sea trout, white croaker / Pacific corvina, buffalo catfish (or smallmouth catfish) and Chilean sea perch / Black hake.
Finally, the largest fish and whose consumption should be done in a timely manner (not incorporated into our weekly diet), are the species of king mackerel or mackerel, orange roughy, stripe or emperor fish, needle, whitetip shark or lofolátilo (Gulf from Mexico), large-eyed tuna or bigeye, swordfish.
If you follow these recommendations for fish consumption during pregnancy and lactation, you will avoid any risk to your health and that of your child.
Control of pregnancy in the nutrition consultation
The consultation of the dietitian – nutritionist is a good option to have a good control of pregnancy. The realization of a personalized diet helps to improve the discomfort of pregnancy and to be able to do a good control of the weight. One of the tools we use is the measurement of the triceps fold and the circumference of the right arm. If the measurements are kept constant it means that you are not getting fat and that the weight gain that is produced is correct. If, on the other hand, the measures decrease or increase, it means that the woman is losing weight or gaining more weight than recommended. In these cases it is important to correct the diet.